25 Mar 2015

Earth orbiting closer to their suns than Mercury does,

"Indeed, it appears that the solar system today is not the common representative of the galactic planetary census. Instead we are something of an outlier," says Batygin. "But there is no reason to think that the dominant mode of planet formation throughout the galaxy should not have occurred here. It is more likely that subsequent changes have altered its original makeup."

The proposed model of our solar system model builds on the Grand Tack scenario, which was first posed in 2001 by a group at Queen Mary University of London. In that scenario, during the first few million years of the solar system's life, when planetary bodies were still embedded in a disc of gas and dust around a relatively young Sun, Jupiter became so massive and gravitationally influential that it was able to clear a gap in the disc, with the Sun then pulling Jupiter inward.
Only Saturn stopped it from being destroyed on the face of the Sun.
Batygin suggests Saturn formed after Jupiter but was pulled toward the Sun at a faster rate, allowing it to catch up and the two bodies to exert a gravitational influence on one another, reversing the planets' migration direction and sending them back outward in the solar system

Albert Einstein with other engineers and scientists at Marconi RCA radio station 1921.jpg

An April 23, 1921 photograph of Albert Einstein being given a tour of the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) Brunswick New Jersey wireless station along with leading RCA scientist and officers as well as engineers and scientists from the General Electric Company, American Telephone and Telegraph Company, and Western Electric Company.
RCA News, Volume 2 By Radio Corporation of America (1921)[1] identified the participants (reading from left to right) as:

Mr James Casey special representative of the New York Herald, W. A. Graham[2], W. A. Winterbottom[3],David SarnoffThomas J. Hayden of the Radio Corporation, Ernst Julius BergS. Benedict of the General Electric Co, Professor Albert Einstein, Mr John Carson of the American Telephone and Telegraph C0, Dr CP Steinmetz (Charles Proteus Steinmetz) of the General Electric Co, Dr A.N. Goldsmith of the Radio Corporation, Mr A. Malsin, Dr Irving Langmuir, Dr Albert W. Hull of the General Electric Co, Mr E.B. Pillsburyof the Radio Corporation, Dr Saul Dushman of the General Electric Co, Mr RH Ranger (Richard Howland Ranger) of Radio Corporation, Dr G.H. Campbell (George Ashley Campbell), of the American Telephone and Telegraph Co, Mr C. H. Taylor[4] of the Radio Corporation, Dr W. Wilson[5] of the Western Electric Co."
The 1921 RCA News also stated:[6]


10 Nov 2014

!000 more genrationta

In 1960, the astronomer Francis Drake pointed a radio telescope located in Green Bank, West Virginia, toward two Sun-like stars 11 light years away. His hope: to pick up a signal that would prove intelligent life might be out there. Fifty years have gone by since Drake’s pioneering SETI experiment, and we’ve yet to hear from the aliens.mmBut thanks to a host of discoveries, the idea that life might exist beyond Earth now seems more plausible than ever. For one, we’ve learned that life can thrive in the most extreme environments here on Earth — from deep-sea methane seep and Antarctic sea ice to acidic rivers and our driest deserts.


13 Oct 2014

Test Post 2

In 1960, the astronomer Francis Drake pointed a radio telescope located in Green Bank, West Virginia, toward two Sun-like stars 11 light years away. His hope: to pick up a signal that would prove intelligent life might be out there. Fifty years have gone by since Drake’s pioneering SETI experiment, and we’ve yet to hear from the aliens.mmBut thanks to a host of discoveries, the idea that life might exist beyond Earth now seems more plausible than ever. For one, we’ve learned that life can thrive in the most extreme environments here on Earth — from deep-sea methane seep and Antarctic sea ice to acidic rivers and our driest deserts.

We’ve also found that liquid water isn’t unique to our planet. Saturn’s moon Enceladus and Jupiter’s moons Ganymede and Europa harbor large oceans beneath their icy surfaces. Even Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, could spawn some kind of life in its lakes and rivers of methane-ethane. And then there’s the discovery of exoplanets, with more than 1800 alien worlds beyond our Solar System identified so far. In fact, astronomers estimate there may be a trillion planets in our galaxy alone, one-fifth of which may be Earth-like. As Carl Sagan famously said: “The Universe is a pretty big place. If it’s just us, seems like an awful waste of space.”
Now some scientists believe the hunt for life beyond Earth may well pay off in our lifetimes. “There have been 10,000 generations of humans before us. Ours could be the first to know,” said SETI astronomer Seth Shostak.

But what happens once we do? How would we handle the discovery? And what would be its impact on society? This daunting question was the focus of a conference organized last September by the NASA Astrobiology Institute and the Library of Congress. For two days, a group of scientists, historians, philosophers and theologians from around the world explored how we might prepare for the inevitable discovery of life — microbial or intelligent — elsewhere in our Universe. The symposium was hosted by Steven J. Dick, the second annual Chair in Astrobiology at the Library of Congress. The video presentations can be viewed here.

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Of course, the impact of discovery will depend on the specific scenario. In a talk titled “Current Approaches to Finding Life Beyond Earth, and What Happens If We Do,” Shostak described three ways — or three “horse races” — for finding life in space. First, we could find it nearby, in our Solar System. NASA’s Curiosity Rover is currently surveying the Martian surface for signs of past or present life. And Europa Clipper, a mission to Jupiter’s icy moon, is now under consideration. Second, we could “sniff it out” of the atmosphere of an exoplanet, using telescopes to look for gases such as methane and oxygen that might hint at a biosphere. The James Webb Space Telescope, to be launched in 2018, will be able to carry out that kind of work.

Finding life in our Solar System, which likely would be microbial, might not have as great an impact as hearing from an intelligent civilization far away. We’d have to worry about issues like contamination. We might also discover some alternative biochemistry, perhaps uncovering new insights about the nature of life. But that kind of discovery wouldn’t affect us as much as the prospect of communicating with intelligent life.

Then again it’d take hundreds, if not thousands of years for a signal to travel back and forth, Shostak pointed out. So that third scenario would only teach us a very few things right away, such as their location or what kind of star they orbit. However, picking a signal might have other tantalizing implications about the nature of alien intelligence.

Several researchers, including Shostak, put forward the following premise: “That once a society creates the technology that could put them in touch with the cosmos, they are only a few hundred years away from changing their paradigm from biology to artificial intelligence.” The idea is based on the so-called “time scale argument” or “short window observation.” Many researchers predict we’ll have developed a strong artificial intelligence by 2050 here on Earth — about a hundred years after the invention of computers, or a hundred and fifty years after the invention of radio communication. “The point is that, going from inventing radios to inventing thinking machines is very short — a few centuries at most,” Shostak said. “The dominant intelligence in the cosmos may well be non-biological.”

In a talk titled “Alien Minds,” Susan Schneider, a philosophy professor at the University of Connecticut, explored that idea further. The concept of “whole brain emulation” is becoming increasingly popular among certain researchers, she explained. So are other far-fetched sounding ideas like “mind uploading” and “immortally.” So, to her, a civilization capable of radio communication would likely be “super-intelligent” by the time we hear from them.

According to the "short window observation" idea, a civilization capable of radio communication would likely have developed artificial intelligence by the time we hear from them. She also argued that alien super-intelligence would be conscious in principle, since the neural code is akin to a computational code, and thoughts could well be embedded in a silicon-based substrate. A silicon-based intelligence would also have tremendous implications for long distance space travel. But again, a recurring theme throughout the conference was to be aware of our anthropocentric tendencies. There’s been a huge gap between microbial life and intelligent life on Earth, and even intelligent life has even evolved on a spectrum.

Lori Marino, a neuroscientist and current director of the Kimela Center for Animal Advocacy, argued as such in a talked titled “The Landscape of Intelligence.” We have a lot to learn from other intelligent beings here on Earth (such as dolphins) before even thinking about communicating with aliens.

Ultimately, the greatest implications might be philosophical. Whether it turns out to be microbial, complex or intelligent, finding life elsewhere will raise intriguing questions about our place in the cosmos. A couple of presentations, by theologian Robin Lovin and Vatican astronomer Guy Consolmagno, even addressed the potential impact on the world’s religions. But what if we don’t find anything soon, or even at all?

The search itself can give us a sense of direction, and help us forge a planetary identity, argued the philosopher Clement Vidal in a talk titled “Silent Impact.” And if we’re truly alone, then we should start taking better care of life here on Earth, and contemplate our duty of colonization, he added. The search itself can help us forge a planetary identity, said philosopher Clement Vidal. In the meantime, astrobiology can help narrow the gap between the sciences and humanities, as many presenters emphasized. And it can be a step toward integrating our knowledge across a wide range of disciplines.

So, how do we prepare for something we know so little about? We do so “by continuing to do good science, but also by realizing that science is not metaphysically neutral,” concluded the conference host Steven Dick. “We prepare by continuing to question our assumptions about the nature of life and intelligence.”

29 Jan 2014

Europa moon Facts and Info

          More than 60 moons have been discovered around the planet Jupiter. Europa was named after a figure from Greek mythology. Europa was the daughter of the King of Tyre and, like Io, was loved by the Greek sky god, Zeus, who was known to the Romans as Jupiter. Europa is the smallest of Jupiter's four planet-sized moons, yet it is only slightly smaller than Earth's Moon. Europa is somewhat similar in bulk composition to the other terrestrial planets (primarily composed of silicate rock). Europa may contain life forms, so a manned expedition should result in a clear answer to the main question: do life forms inhabit Europa? A journey to Europa will give us the answer. Europa was discovered by Galileo Galilei on Jan. 8, 1610. Europa and Jupiter's other three largest moons are often called the Galilean moons.

Europa’s surface is entirely covered by salt water with a thick layer of ice on top. The length of its orbit right round Jupiter is 2,618,478 miles (4,216,552 kilometres). It takes only 3.5 Earth days to complete its orbit, travelling at a speed of 30,724 miles (49.476 kilometres) an hour. Europa has an average distance of about 417,000 miles from Jupiter. When Europa moves closer to Jupiter, Jupiter’s gravity causes a higher tide in the sea beneath the ice, which probably causes the ice to crack under the surface. Europa is five times as far from the Sun as the Earth. Europa has an extremely tenuous atmosphere comprising of oxygen.

Europa's surface temperatures range from -160C to -220C (-260F to -370F). Scientists can only speculate on the temperature of the ocean which lies beneath its surface but it is obviously warm enough for liquid water to exist. Europa holds the most intriguing prospects for life in the entire Solar System. Some scientists speculate that Europa's ocean could be teeming with life although most think that life would take the form of micro-organisms living near hot vents on the ocean floor. Europa may have life beneath its ice surface. Data from NASA's Galileo mission indicate that a liquid water ocean more than 100 km deep probably underlies the water-ice surface of Jupiter's large moon Europa. On surface of Europa radiation has been pointed out. If you want take a clear look on Europa and want to know more about Europa then I suggest you should watch “Europa Report” movie.

 (If you find any error or miscalculation in this article then please feel free to share in comment and if you want to expand this article then comment below)


The Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud Facts

Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud:-

 Kuiper Belt filled with icy bodies lies beyond gas giant Neptune. Kuiper belt holds trillions of objects, remnants of the early solar system. In 1951, astronomer Gerard Kuiper predicted the existence of a belt of icy objects that now is named after him “Kuiper Belt”. Some astronomers refer to it as the Edgeworth-Kupier Belt. In 1943, astronomer Kenneth Edgeworth had suggests comets and larger bodies might exist beyond Neptune. This small world most commonly known as Kupier Belt Objects (KBOs) and, in recent years, is also known as dwarf planets. Consequently, Kuiper belt research is now considered a top priority of modern planetary science. The Oort Cloud is a massive spherical cloud; the size of this cloud is disputed by different astronomers. Some believe that it begins at 2000 or 5000 astronomical units–an astronomical unit (AU) equals the distance between the Earth and the Sun–and ends at 50,000 AU, which is almost a light-year. The sphere was named after the astronomer Jan Oort who hypothesized its existence in 1950. The contents of both Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud are known as Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) because the objects of both regions have orbits that that are further from the Sun than Neptune’s orbit is.

The Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud surround our sun, a star. The Kuiper Belt is a doughnut-shaped ring, extending just beyond the orbit of Neptune from about 30 to 55 AU. There may be are hundreds of thousands of icy bodies larger than 100 km (62 miles) and an estimated trillion or more comets within the Kuiper Belt. Although most comets are thought to come from the Oort Cloud, some do come from the Kuiper Belt.The Oort Cloud may contain more than a trillion icy bodies. Several dwarf planets in the Kuiper Belt have tiny moons. The first mission to the Kuiper Belt is New Horizons. New Horizons will reach Pluto in 2015. The dwarf planets Pluto, Eris and Haumea all orbit in the Kuiper Belt.

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Alpha Centauri(Rigel Kentaurus) Facts and Info

Alpha Centauri(Rigel Kentaurus): We all know about Sun and our solar system  that it has eight planets , one star and many other bodies like comets and asteroids and we also know that  our universe is a lot bigger than our imagination and there are trillions of galaxies in our universe. If there are so many galaxies then they must have billions of stars in them and those stars must have planets or rocky bodies around them just like our solar system and yes there are many stars and planets. So question here is what’s the closest star  to our Sun? After long time of search, astronomers have found the answer to this question is “Alpha Centauri”. Alpha Centauri is the closest star system to our Sun. When this system was observed, astronomers thought that this is a single star system like ours but soon they realized that its high luminosity is because of two stars. It’s a binary star system. The main components are Alpha Centauri A and Alpha Centauri B. Proxima Centauri, is thought to be about 4.22 light-years distant and is actually our sun’s closest neighbor among the stars. Is it part of the Alpha Centauri system? The actual status of Proxima as a system member of Alpha Centauri system is unclear. If you look through a small telescope at the Alpha Centauri system, you will see the two main stars, but you will not see Proxima Centauri. It’s too faint and appears too far (4 diameters of the full moon) away to be easily recognized at part of the system. But most of the astronomers think it’s a triple star system. This system is 4.3 light-years away from Earth. The two stars Alpha Centauri A and B spin around each other. The most amazing thing about this star syatem is that astronomers have found a planet in 2012 close to Earth's mass around one of the stars of Called Alpha Centauri Bb, the planet orbits its star about every 3.2 days, at 3.6 million miles (6 million kilometers) away. Is there any life on that planet? This question is still under debate and  to answer this we first have to observe this planet more closely. This matter of Alpha Centauri star system is still open for debate also. More study is required to fully reveal the secrets of this strange star system. Alpha Centauri is most of the times also known as Rigel Kentaurus.

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The Andromeda Galaxy Facts and Info

The Andromeda Galaxy:-
                      Andromeda Galaxy is also known as M31(Messier 31)  galaxy and was named after the mythological princess Andromeda. The Andromeda Galaxy is one of the most well-known and studied spiral galaxies in the night sky. The Andromeda Galaxy, M31, dominates an exclusive group of objects outside our own galaxy that are visible to the unaided eye. Under dark skies, M31 can be seen as a cloudy patch of light, although even small telescopes reveal its substructure in the form of a central bulge and spiral disk. The Andromeda Galaxy and our Milky Way Galaxy reign as the two most massive and dominant galaxies within the Local Group of Galaxies. Andromeda contains over one trillion stars. It’s nearly twice as large as our Milky Way (300 to 400 billion times the size of the sun) and has more stars, but it has less solar mass, and therefore is less dense than the Milky Way. At 2.3 million light-years, the Great Andromeda Galaxy (Messier 31) rates as one of the most distant objects you can see with the unaided eye.

Andromeda lies only 2.5 million light years away, M31 is an extremely well-studied spiralgalaxy, giving us a detailed, external perspective of a galaxy similar to our own. However, much remains to be learned. In approximately 4.5 billion years the Andromeda Galaxy and the Milky Way are expected to collide. Diameter of Andromeda Galaxy is 260,000 light-years. Mass of Andromeda Galaxy is about 400 billion solar masses. While Andromeda is the largest galaxy in the Local Cluster it is not thought to be the most massive as the Milky May is thought to contain more dark matter making it the most massive. The Andromeda Galaxy is approaching the Milky Way at approximately 100 to 140 kilometres per second. So we are safe for just few billion years.

In 964, the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi described the galaxy as a "small cloud" in his Book of "Fixed Stars", the first known report of our nearest neighbor. In the 1920s, the distant galaxy became part of the Great Debate between American astronomers Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis. Like the Milky Way, the Andromeda Galaxy has satellite galaxies, consisting of 14 known dwarf galaxies. The best known and most readily observed satellite galaxies are M32 and M110. The fate of the Earth and the Solar System in the event of a collision of Milky Way Galaxy and Andromeda Galaxy is currently unknown. If the galaxies do not merge, there is a small chance that the Solar System could be ejected from the MilkyWay or join M31.

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15 Dec 2013

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